Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes (Hawaiian Classic Reprints)
Condition: Used: Good.
Published by C. About this Item: C. Condition: Very Good.
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Good dust jacket. Owner's name on endpage. Seller Inventory P10G Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Published by Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, VT About this Item: Charles E.
Tuttle Company, Rutland, VT, Looks like new. Published by Mutual Publishing October About this Item: Mutual Publishing October , Condition: Very Good - Cash. Very little wear to cover, corners and edges. Binding is tight, pages are unmarked and crisp. Stock photos may not look exactly like the book. The dust jacket is missing. Published by Tuttle, Rutland VT Condition: Near Fine. Price clipped.
Seller Inventory y. Published by Ellis Press; [etc. About this Item: Ellis Press; [etc. Unknown Binding. Illustrated cloth cover shows minor wear and rubbing, soiling. Minor fading on the endpapers, former owner's name stamp on the title page. Pages are mostly clean with a bit of foxing, text is intact and unmarred. Connecting readers with great books since Customer service is our top priority!. Published by Mutual Publishing. About this Item: Mutual Publishing.
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Published by Mutual Publishing Hawaiian lava spills out of craters and forms long streams of glowing molten rock, flowing down the slope, covering acres of land and replacing ocean with new land. There is significant evidence that lava flow rates have been increasing. Over the last six million years they have been far higher than ever before, at over 0. The average for the last million years is even higher, at about 0. In comparison, the average production rate at a mid-ocean ridge is about 0.
The rate along the Emperor seamount chain averaged about 0. The rate was almost zero for the initial five million or so years in the hotspot's life. The average lava production rate along the Hawaiian chain has been greater, at 0. The distance between individual volcanoes has shrunk. A detailed topographic analysis of the Hawaiian — Emperor seamount chain reveals the hotspot as the center of a topographic high, and that elevation falls with distance from the hotspot.
The most rapid decrease in elevation and the highest ratio between the topography and geoid height are over the southeastern part of the chain, falling with distance from the hotspot, particularly at the intersection of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones. The most likely explanation is that the region between the two zones is more susceptible to reheating than most of the chain. Another possible explanation is that the hotspot strength swells and subsides over time.
In , Robert S. Dietz and his colleagues first identified the swell behavior. It was suggested that the cause was mantle upwelling.
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Later work pointed to tectonic uplift , caused by reheating within the lower lithosphere. However, normal seismic activity beneath the swell, as well as lack of detected heat flow, caused scientists to suggest dynamic topography as the cause, in which the motion of the hot and buoyant mantle plume supports the high surface topography around the islands. The Hawaii hotspot is a highly active seismic zone with thousands of earthquakes occurring on and near Hawaii island every year.
Most are too small to be felt by people but some are large enough to result in minor to moderate devastation. A tsunami claimed 46 more lives. Over its 85 million year history, the Hawaii hotspot has created at least volcanoes, more than of which are extinct volcanoes , seamounts , and atolls , four of which are active volcanoes , and two of which are dormant volcanoes.
Hawaiian volcanoes are characterized by frequent rift eruptions , their large size thousands of cubic kilometers in volume , and their rough, decentralized shape. Rift zones are a prominent feature on these volcanoes, and account for their seemingly random volcanic structure. The Hawaiian islands are carpeted by a large number of landslides sourced from volcanic collapse.
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These debris flows can be sorted into two broad categories: slumps , mass movement over slopes which slowly flatten their originators, and more catastrophic debris avalanches , which fragment volcanic slopes and scatter volcanic debris past their slopes. These slides have caused massive tsunamis and earthquakes, fractured volcanic massifs, and scattered debris hundreds of miles away from their source. Forced forward by the mass of newly ejected volcanic material, slumps may creep forward slowly, or surge forward in spasms that have caused the largest of Hawaii's historical earthquakes, in and Debris avalanches, meanwhile, are thinner and longer, and are defined by volcanic amphitheaters at their head and hummocky terrain at their base.
Evidence of these events exists in the form of marine deposits high on the slopes of many Hawaiian volcanoes,  and has marred the slopes of several Emperor seamounts, such as Daikakuji Guyot and Detroit Seamount. Hawaiian volcanoes follow a well-established life cycle of growth and erosion. After a new volcano forms, its lava output gradually increases.
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Height and activity both peak when the volcano is around , years old and then rapidly decline. Eventually it goes dormant, and eventually extinct. Erosion then weathers the volcano until it again becomes a seamount. This life cycle consists of several stages. During this stage, the volcano builds height through increasingly frequent eruptions. The sea's pressure prevents explosive eruptions. The cold water quickly solidifies the lava, producing the pillow lava that is typical of underwater volcanic activity.
As the seamount slowly grows, it goes through the shield stages. It forms many mature features, such as a caldera , while submerged. The summit eventually breaches the surface, and the lava and ocean water "battle" for control as the volcano enters the explosive subphase. This stage of development is exemplified by explosive steam vents. This stage produces mostly volcanic ash , a result of the waves dampening the lava.
The volcano enters the subaerial subphase once it is tall enough to escape the water. Thereafter eruptions become much less explosive. Hawaiian lava is often runny, blocky, slow, and relatively easy to predict; the USGS tracks where it is most likely to run, and maintains a tourist site for viewing the lava.
After the subaerial phase the volcano enters a series of postshield stages involving subsidence and erosion, becoming an atoll and eventually a seamount. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.